The flood elicited a generous national and international charitable response, with overseas Chinese communities providing particularly large donations. In spite of these considerable efforts by the summer of 1931 the NFRC was in dire economic straits. Initial attempts to fund the relief effort through issuing bonds failed due to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, which had caused the bond market to collapse.  Eventually, the NFRC managed to negotiate a number of wheat and flour loans from the US government. Having finally secured financial backing, the NFRC now had to distribute a huge quantity of relief throughout the disaster zone. This was a considerable challenge, not just because the flood had destroyed much of the communication and transportation infrastructure but also because China was in midst of both international and domestic wars. Ships importing grain into Shanghai had to negotiate a passage through the ships of the Japanese Navy, which were engaged in a conflict with Chinese troops in the city in early 1932. Having landed the relief grain, the NFRC then had to transport it upstream through hostile territory, where bandits and Communists attacked boats, commandeered supplies, and kidnapped relief workers.