13. Include a title on your proposal. I'm amazed at how often the title is left for the end of the student's writing and then somehow forgotten when the proposal is prepared for the committee. A good proposal has a good title and it is the first thing to help the reader begin to understand the nature of your work. Use it wisely! Work on your title early in the process and revisit it often. It's easy for a reader to identify those proposals where the title has been focused upon by the student. Preparing a good title means:
The convenience sample often suffers from biases from a number of biases. This can be seen in both of our examples, whether the 10,000 students we were studying, or the employees at the large organisation. In both cases, a convenience sample can lead to the under-representation or over-representation of particular groups within the sample. If we take the large organisation: It may be that the organisation has multiple sites, with employee satisfaction varying considerably between these sites. By conducting the survey at the headquarters of the organisation, we may have missed the differences in employee satisfaction amongst non-office workers. We also do not know why some employees agreed to take part in the survey, whilst others did not. Was it because some employees were simply too busy? Did not trust the intentions of the survey? Did others take part out of kindness or because they had a particular grievance with the organisation? These types of bias are quite typical in convenience sampling.