The text leaps from section ✸14 directly to the foundational sections ✸20 GENERAL THEORY OF CLASSES and ✸21 GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIONS . "Relations" are what is known in contemporary set theory as sets of ordered pairs . Sections ✸20 and ✸22 introduce many of the symbols still in contemporary usage. These include the symbols "ε", "⊂", "∩", "∪", "–", "Λ", and "V": "ε" signifies "is an element of" (* PM* 1962:188); "⊂" ( ✸ ) signifies "is contained in", "is a subset of"; "∩" ( ✸ ) signifies the intersection (logical product) of classes (sets); "∪" ( ✸ ) signifies the union (logical sum) of classes (sets); "–" ( ✸ ) signifies negation of a class (set); "Λ" signifies the null class; and "V" signifies the universal class or universe of discourse.

Many mathematical models of physical systems are deterministic. This is true of most models involving differential equations (notably, those measuring rate of change over time). Mathematical models that are not deterministic because they involve randomness are called stochastic . Because of sensitive dependence on initial conditions , some deterministic models may appear to behave non-deterministically; in such cases, a deterministic interpretation of the model may not be useful due to numerical instability and a finite amount of precision in measurement. Such considerations can motivate the consideration of a stochastic model even though the underlying system is governed by deterministic equations. [54] [55] [56]

The value TRUE causes JDBC to use strict compliance for some edge cases. In general, Oracle JDBC drivers allow some operations that are not permitted in the strict interpretation of Java2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) . Setting this property to TRUE will cause those cases to throw SQLException . There are some other edge cases where Oracle JDBC drivers have slightly different behavior than defined in J2EE . This results from Oracle having defined the behavior prior to the J2EE specification and the resultant need for compatibility with existing customer code. Setting this property will result in full J2EE compliance at the cost of incompatibility with some customer code. Can be either a system property or a connection property.