At least one opponent shall be appointed for the examination of a doctoral thesis manuscript. The opponent should have a PhD or be appointed as a professor. If none of the pre-examiners have been appointed to professors, the opponent should fill this criterion. If none of the pre-examiners are working at a foreign university, the opponent should, when it is practically possible and does not have a negative impact on the quality of the grading. (See AC decision 29 October 2014 § 11.) A person who has acted as thesis supervisor or is employed at Hanken cannot be appointed as opponent.