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In the Second World War , the zoologist Hugh Cott, a protégé of Kerr, worked to persuade the British army to use more effective camouflage techniques, including countershading, but, like Kerr and Thayer in the First World War, with limited success. For example, he painted two rail-mounted coastal guns, one in conventional style, one countershaded . In aerial photographs, the countershaded gun was essentially invisible. [45] The power of aerial observation and attack led every warring nation to camouflage targets of all types. The Soviet Union 's Red Army created the comprehensive doctrine of Maskirovka for military deception, including the use of camouflage. [46] For example, during the Battle of Kursk , General Katukov , the commander of the Soviet 1st Tank Army, remarked that the enemy "did not suspect that our well-camouflaged tanks were waiting for him. As we later learned from prisoners, we had managed to move our tanks forward unnoticed". The tanks were concealed in previously prepared defensive emplacements, with only their turrets above ground level. [47] In the air, Second World War fighters were often painted in ground colours above and sky colours below, attempting two different camouflage schemes for observers above and below. [48] Bombers and night fighters were often black, [49] while maritime reconnaissance planes were usually white, to avoid appearing as dark shapes against the sky. [50] For ships, dazzle camouflage was mainly replaced with plain grey in the Second World War, though experimentation with colour schemes continued. [41]

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