CT, Computerized Axial Tomography, uses x-rays to generate images of the body, including bone . In the CT scanner the x-ray tube, (source) rotates around the patient laying on the table. On the opposite side of the patient from the tube is the x-ray detector. This detector receives the beam that makes it through the patient. The beam is sampled via some 764 channels, (approximate number of channels). The signal received by each channel is digitized to a 16 bit value and sent to the reconstruction processor. Measurements are taken about 1000 times per second. Scan rotations are usually 1 to 2 seconds long. Each view/channel chunk of scan data is compared to calibration scan data of air, water and polyethylene (soft plastic), previously acquired in the exact same relative location. The comparisons allow the image pixels to have a known value for a particular substance in the body regardless of differences in patient size and exposure factors. The more samples or views, the better the picture.
Nevertheless, some differences can be seen based on the Obama administration's handling of relations with certain countries. For example, Israel and the . have always been strong allies. But relations between Obama and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu have been tense. A major contributor to this tension has been the Obama administration's Iran policy. The . tightened sanctions on Iran in Obama's first term, but negotiated a deal in the second term that allowed international inspections of Iranian nuclear facilities. The . and Iran also found common ground against the threat from ISIS. This rapprochement has irked Iran's traditional rival Israel, even though for all practical purposes Israel and the . remain staunch allies. Republicans in Congress opposed the Iran deal and the easing of sanctions against Iran. They also invited Netanyahu to deliver a speech against the deal.
The English have been making educational comparisons with other nations for at least 160 years. But it is only in the past few years, when Western countries have grown increasingly anxious about their long-term economic prospects, that the findings of international studies have assumed their present significance. In England such studies are fuelling the debate over whether we should adopt the whole-class teaching methods of the Far Eastern countries which dominate the maths and science league tables. As Neil McIntosh, chief executive of the education services company, CfBT, points out, however, this is a strange and probably unproductive argument (Letters, page 23). In any case, whole-class teaching of whatever variety is obviously only one of the reasons for the Pacific Rim nations' educational success. Dr Julia Whitburn (page 14) has observed maths lessons in Japan and Switzerland, one of Europe's top education performers, and has concluded that there are other key factors. Professor Caroline Gipps provided a broader analysis in her December 20 TES Platform article on schooling in the Far East. She pointed to the paramount importance of the Confucian philosophy which, as is now generally known, encourages reverence for all things educational. But it isn't only Chinese societies which have a far more positive view of education than the British do. The December 13 Research Focus articles contributed by Dr Julian Elliott and his Sunderland University colleagues showed how much more motivated Russian 14-year-olds are than their peers in the north-east of England. The chronically-underpaid teachers of St Petersburg may be quitting to set up market stalls or work as bodyguards for Russia's nouveaux riches, but their pupils still enjoy school more than their English contemporaries. Now Bristol University researchers (page 14) have compared primary pupils' attitudes in France and England and have produced very similar findings. It is, of course, possible to do well at school without enjoying it - Japanese children are world-beaters in maths but both they and their teachers often hate the subject. It is also true that despite their negativity our children trounced the French in the science tests conducted for the recent Third International Maths and Science Study. Nevertheless, these Anglo-Russian and French studies deserve close scrutiny. There is a mounting pile of evidence which suggests that it is our deep-rooted disregard for education which best explains our children's relatively poor performance. Education may be Tony Blair's passion, but it is not Britain's. Until it is, even a revitalised teaching profession is unlikely to push the country up the international league tables. Subscribe to get access to the content on this page. If you are already a Tes/ Tes Scotland subscriber please log in with your username or email address to get full access to our back issues, CPD library and membership plus page.